religious traditions in latin america

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photo © Lorraine Caputo. Some use corn starch (maicena) to thicken the drink, others use the more traditional black corn flour (harina de maíz negro). The words 'Latin America' are used to describe the group of 21 countries (listed below) in the American continent where Latin languages are spoken. Explain the religious significance of piñatas. LATIN AMERICAN SOCIO-RELIGIOUS STUDIES PROGRAM (PROLADES) A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN THE AMERICAS BY MAJOR TRADITIONS AND FAMILY TYPES Clifton L. Holland, General Editor Linda J. Holland, Assistant Editor First Edition: 30 October 1993 Last Modified on 18 June 2018 PROLADES Apartado 86-5000, Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica Officially the procession begins from Iglesia San Francisco at noon, but the pilgrims begin leaving at 10 a.m. More than a quarter-million onlookers come to the city to witness this fervid display of Roman Catholic faith. Describe gift-giving traditions in Latin America. This is a traditional Mexican birthday song (some people say that in fact, it is two songs in one). He was contemporary of Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francisco de Asís), founder of the Franciscan order. It’s based in the pre-Hispanic belief that the dead return in the first days of November. Explain the religious significance of piñatas. Because many families head to the beach or other popular national destinations during the holiday, hotel and food prices in those places triple or even quadruple. In Ushuaia, the longest night is celebrated in June. By significant majorities, Latinos who identify with a religion believe that miracles are performed today just as they were in ancient times. The most important of these days is Good Friday, marking the crucifixion of Jesus. Latin American music, musical traditions of Mexico, Central America, and the portions of South America and the Caribbean colonized by the Spanish and the Portuguese. Instead, it inscribes a circle on the edge of the horizon. After the mass, families retire home for a big feast and to exchange gifts. photo © Lorraine Caputo. photo © Lorraine Caputo, A sprig of arrayán (myrtle). glisten in the holy lights of this chilled night, Tigershark (UK) (Issue 28, December 2020), The scene in Quito’s most luxurious church, La Compañía, has a classic air to it, in harmony with the temple’s Baroque interior. Traditional folk practices continue to vie with Western medicine in Each devotee shall kiss him, before he is tenderly placed in the straw-filled cradle in the center of the pesebre. One Día de los Difuntos, doña Magdalena invites me to join her family for lunch – and colada morada. I have witnessed and celebrated many of these traditions. photo © Lorraine Caputo. Behind them are the Verónicas, veiled women dressed in purple, representing the woman who wiped the sweat from Jesus’ brow after he fell. This is then followed by a round of seven dances performed by couples: These are just two of the ways San Antonio is fêted in Latin America, in the countryside and in the city, by campesinos and by African descendants. His given name was Antonio Mamerto Gil Núñez. Each have a sprig of cinnamon and a few cloves floating amongst the hunks of fruit. In many countries (including Mexico, Paraguay and Colombia), 29 – 30 June are national holidays. This serenade will continue until the wee hours of the morn, when then the all-day procession commences with a mass, and ends with an evening of seven dances…, Iglesia Nuestra Señora de Guápulo (Quito, Ecuador). And the bus stops in from of the Santuario de Gauchito Gil. And, of course, I have mine which I keep with my faithful Rocinanate, ever ready to hit the open road …. photo © Lorraine Caputo, Some participants in the Good Friday processions dress as Jesus and are accompanied by friends who act as centurions and may flagellate the penitent. photo ©Lorraine Caputo, bucklets of choclo con habas, of salchipapas, The Jueves Santo procession in Quito. Unlike northern European (including US) traditions, caroling from house to house is not common. the blistered streets raw Iglesia San Francisco (Quito, Ecuador). RELIGION-LATIN AMERICA: Indigenous Peoples Divided by Faith. That event closed the night with a massive fireworks display. It is the eve of the feast day of San Antonio – Saint Anthony of Padua. From Palm Sunday (marking the end of the 40 days of fasting during Lent) through Easter Sunday, the days will be filled with masses, processions and other special ceremonies. Please note that as of July 2015, this page is no longer being actively updated or maintained. Some wear a barbed-wire crown of thorns, or wrap barbed wire, stinging nettles (ortiga) or cactus around their torsos. Therefore, the celebration of the Holy Week is a major celebration across the region. For our photographic part of the journey, we shall see scenes from Quito. On Nochebuena (Christmas Eve), they go to the special mass where the baby Jesus is presented, kissed by all, then placed in the manger scene. the scent of beeswax & sweet white flowers, Easter (Resurrection) Sunday is not as important as it is in the Protestant religions. And I enter the tin-roofed chapels where smaller versions of Gauchito Gil stand, surrounded by candles with flames dancing in a barely perceptible breeze. Bands, traditional dances and other cultural events accentuate the scene. Religious music remains an important part of ritual celebrations, particularly processions and festivals of the Catholic Church. After this come the Virgen Dolorosa (Virgen of Sorrows) and Jesús de Gran Poder (Jesus of Great Power), to whom the procession is dedicated. By Latin America specialist Rachel Located in the northern part of Colombia , Medellín is the country’s second-largest city, nestled in the Aburrá Valley in the Andes. These are some of the places with the biggest, most spectacular Holy Week celebrations in the region: Mexico – Taxco, San Luis Potosí and Querétaro (traditional ceremonies and on Good Friday, the penitents’ procession); Iztapalapa, Guatemala – Antigua (with floral carpets), El Salvador – San Salvador (with sawdust carpets), Honduras – Comayagua (with sawdust carpets), Costa Rica – Heredia, San Rafael de Oreamuno, Venezuela – Tacarigua de Mamporal, Guatire, Villa de Cura, Ecuador – Quito (with very traditional masses – including the arrastre de caudas, and processions, especially of penitents on Good Friday). Wherever you may be wending in the region, you will experience the festivities. There may be turkey or tamales (a.k.a. If you are traveling at any of these seasons, your best chance of seeing (and perhaps joining in) on the festivities are in areas with a strong indigenous sense of pride, especially in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. La Recoleta Church (Quito, Ecuador). photo © Lorraine Caputo, The procession attracts over 100,000 people. A man eats cake No matter in which country you are at this moment, you’ll find processions from Holy Wednesday through Resurrection (Easter) Sunday. None sanctified by the Catholic Church – but rather sanctified by the pueblo. photo © Lorraine Caputo. or for love conquered. To welcome them, people set up altars with offerings and toys and wear costumes featuring flowery skulls, which have become a … During the Christmas novena (16-24 December) in the small mountain village of Málaga (Colombia), teens dress up as Matachines (masked, Cousin-It-looking creatures). Evenings can be cool; be sure to take along a shawl, sweater or other wrap. This article reviews the principal tendencies in the contemporary studies of indigenous South American religious traditions. theater, and cinema has brought a new awareness to the population; It’s called the “ Day of the Family ” instead, though people celebrate with trees and feasts in gatherings resembling what we … San Antonio is represented by the infant Jesus cradled in one arm. Religious Celebrations. Religious Beliefs. On the fourth burner is a larger pot full of water, herbs and spices. The walls are covered with plaques, photos, handwritten notes – all thanking this renegade saint for his intersession. He returned a hero, but immediately was drafted into the civil wars (1814-1880) raging through the region. Remember to be respectful of the ceremonies – and, please, ask beforehand if photos are allowed to be taken. Please note that as of July 2015, this page is no longer being actively updated or maintained. is of Little interest among Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans, and This is how Western Christianity sets the dates for these religious observances: A roadside shrine to Gauchito Gil near Río Turbio, in Argentina’s southern Patagonia. Catholic leaders and activists opposed authoritarian regimes, influenced democratic "transitions," and, within substantially altered ecclesial institutions, have remained a significant presence in more open societies today. Latin American music, musical traditions of Mexico, Central America, and the portions of South America and the Caribbean colonized by the Spanish and the Portuguese. Another Garífuna tradition in these Black Caribe towns, is Hüngühüngü (also called Fedu), the women-oriented processions of the singing, dancing grandmas. This encyclopedia is the first comprehensive survey of Hispanic American religiosity, contextualizing the roles of Latino and Latina Americans within U.S. religious culture. Very simple, I am told. Posadas. Once the corn harvest was in and winter rains came, we entered the time called Aya Marcay Quilla (October – November). African and African-inspired religions in Latin America and the Caribbean are as diverse as the region itself. “That’s one dollar,” she tells me friend. Upon passing the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, you’ll experience over two months of pure light in summer, and pure night and twilight in winter. Catholic leaders and activists opposed authoritarian regimes, influenced democratic "transitions," and, within substantially altered ecclesial institutions, have remained a significant presence in more open societies today. In Quito, they walk through the historic center of town, from San Francisco church, uphill to the Basilica, and back – a total of about three kilometers (1.8 miles). Although the raymi solar festivals are associated with the Inca Empire, they are, in fact, millennia-old traditions. Today, we shall witness the traditions in two distinct parts of this region: in the deep countryside of Nicaragua, and in the barrios of the city of Barquisimeto, in Venezuela. even. The Festival del Auténtico Chamamé Tradicional (Authentic Traditional Chamamé Festival) occurs in February. Let’s take a look at how they celebrate it in that northern Chilean port city. From the Bolivian border to the Beagle Channel, from the Andes along the Chilean frontier to the Atlantic Ocean, I have seen red flags fluttering at the side of roads. I shall do more than that … I shall look for the origins of the drink ….. The song is usually sung in the morning and sometimes as a serenade (serenata). Inti Raymi (Sun Festival) is the most famous of the Andean sun festivals. photo © Lorraine Caputo. Let us, then, embark on a photographic-poetic excursion of Latin America to celebrate Semana Santa. Baby Jesus brings gifts that evening, and kids open them Christmas morning before the parades and festivals around Boxing Day begin. He erected it at the site of the murder. © Lorraine Caputo. As with the Spanish language, Roman Catholicism dominates throughout But even in the smallest of villages, the faithful wend the lanes, carrying statues of Jesus and Mary. photo © Lorraine Caputo. Her halo is made of fine silver filigree. Often they do this barefoot, at times with shackles and chains. Three Kings' Day Celebration: History And Traditions Behind 'El Día De Los Reyes' By Carolina Moreno Santa Claus may have gone back to the North Pole to rest, but it doesn’t mean the gift-giving (and receiving) is over -- at least not for the thousands of children in Latin America and Spain anxiously awaiting “El Día de los Reyes” Celebration on Jan. 6th. The Andean indigenous cosmovision has four festivals or raymi: Inti, Kulla, Kapak and Pawkar. Saint Paul became a major proponent of Christianity, and much of the surviving New Testament is credited to his pen. – and local fauna, like llama. How could these people celebrate the Resurrection? The risks, though, were outweighed by the excitement of seeing the Midnight Sun and having a break from the grind of scrubbing toilets and attending guests in a national park. photo © Lorraine Caputo, The shrine to San Pedro in Puerto Cisnes, in southern Chile. Even though Catholic Church teaching forbids some of these behaviors, Protestants across the region are more likely than Catholics to see … photo © Lorraine Caputo, Walking through the market, the calls reverberate down Quito’s narrow colonial streets. As they sing their honoring song honoring to this saint, bottles of cocuy (homebrew liquor) are being passed. It happened exactly as Gauchito Gil foretold. Yakarí offered to be my guide through the two days of celebrations in the Los Crepúsculos neighborhood. The solstices and equinoxes are important times of the year, especially for peoples with earth-based religions. I ask the workers at the hostel how I might be able to arrive at the shrine of Gauchito Gil. With a large wooden spoon, doña Rosalía lifts each herb out of the simmering tisane, to teach me the names: ishpingo and pimienta dulce. 7 In all of Latin America, people in the Central American nations of Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala and El Salvador are among the most religiously committed and socially conservative. 13 Latin American Christmas Traditions You Should Know About by Bill O’Connor November 22, 2019 It’s that time of year again — you’ve surely noticed the deluge of Christmas decorations, music, and frenzied shopping all around you. Upon being captured, Gauchito Gil declared his innocence and said the letter with his pardon was on the way. Funeral rites vary as There is no official language of the United States, according to the U.S. government. Do you hear the herald angels singing, Iglesia San Sebastián, located on the eastern flank of the Panecillo, reflects the barrio’s indigenous heritage: José and María are from the Shuar nation. Check on availability of transportation – and whether markets, restaurants and other businesses will be open, especially from Wednesday to Saturday. Protestantism has gained many followers in recent decades. Other places – Querétaro (Mexico) and Quito (Ecuador), among others – have fervent Good Friday processions. Semana Santa, which culminates in Easter Sunday, is one of the most important times of the year throughout Latin America. Everyone heads to the beach during the Christmas-New Year holiday, if they can. In further south climes, this popular Saint is also being fêted. You might be wondering who San Pedro (Saint Peter) and San Pablo (Saint Paul) were – and why they have become associated with the fishing trade. In the evenings, they gather around it to say the novena and sing villancicos (Christmas carols). The feast day of Saint Anthony of Padua is celebrated on 13 June. As its Latin roots imply (æquus = equal + nox = night), the day / night ratio at all corners of the Earth is 12 hours / 12 hours. This season is also celebrated with traditional foods, especially fish, bacalao (salt cod) and seafood. “Guaguas de pan, guaguas de pan. photo © Lorraine Caputo, The Virgen Dolorosa’s black dress is embroidered with gold thread. Because making tamales can be pretty time consuming, many people opt to participate in tamaladas , or tamal-making parties, where participants swap recipes and bond as they prepare this delicious holiday staple in bulk. the human tradition in modern latin america the human tradition around the world series Nov 22, 2020 Posted By Frank G. Slaughter Media Publishing TEXT ID 187b636f Online PDF Ebook Epub Library sister by robert dugoni a pulse pounding amazoncom the human tradition in modern latin america the human tradition in the new south the the human tradition in colonial How are religious beliefs infused into the Christmas traditions in Latin America? Now is when spiritual and political leaders are celebrated and the baton of power is passed on. The midnight sky is painted by the bursts of hundreds of fireworks, celebrating the birth of the Lord Savior. The second version of the tale recounts that he was drafted into the Colorado forces to fight against the Liberales in the civil wars. arrayán, ataco. practices in those groups are far less common among Mexican Americans. The processions draw a lot of observers – and many pickpockets. on the front walk, On this day, the Virgen Dolorosa (Virgin of Sorrows) is silently carried through the streets, everyone joining in the mourning of her first-born son. From before Christmas through the Feast of Epiphany, city traffic will be stopped for the Pase del Niño. “Colada morada! Here is a brief overview of American holidays, food, clothing and more. The city’s Feria de las Flores (Flower Festival) dates back to the 1950s and is held each summer in late July or early August, to capture the beauty of the local blossoms. In Argentina and Uruguay, folks will be enjoying tarta pascualina (Swiss chard or spinach and ricotta quiche). The tamunangue not only honors San Antonio on his feast day, but it is also performed to fulfill a promise (promesa) to him for granting a good harvest, a family request (for wishes of healing, a new home, studies, etc.) Iglesia San Francisco (Puerto Ayora, Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos). Unlike northern European (including US) traditions, caroling from house to house is not common. Dangers included getting stuck in mud, bottoming out the car and ripping the oil pan out, and accidents. He was assassinated 8 January 1878. Quito, Ecuador. photo © Lorraine Caputo. photo © Lorraine Caputo, The crèche in Iglesia La Merced, in the Historic Center of Lima, Peru, occupies one large side chapel of the church, and includes scenes of the Peruvian life in the countryside and the city. The term for this drink, colada morada, is obviously Spanish: colada, strained + morada, purple. Schoolchildren dress as José, María, the three Wise Men, shepherds (pastores) and angels to accompany the baby Christ. adorned with figures of skulls and skeletons. Already renowned for their vivacious colors, lively music and strong cultural ties, the countries of Latin America tend to pull out all the stops when it comes to festivals. One morning, doña Marcela’s invites me into her kitchen where she and her maid, Rosalía, are preparing the recipe handed down by Marcela’s abuelita (grandmother). Originally Spanish Christmas traditions, Posadas are now also Guatemalan and Mexican traditions. Thus he holds the title of Doctor of the Church. Puerto Ricans are predominantly Catholic, yet their beliefs, rituals, and practices often stray outside the orthodox boundaries of Catholicism. Even many years after that night in Los Crepúsculos, the serenade sounds through my mind. Let us now take a look at some of the cucuruchos and Verónicas, the Jesuses and the Roman soldiers  …, Día de los Difuntos funerary procession. This is the full-out, theatrical performance held every 24 June in Saqsayhuaman, near Cusco, Peru. The page remains at this address as an archival and research resource. July 6-14 - San Fermín Festival, also known as the Running of the Bulls in Pamplona, Spain. This tradition is interesting to me since in Ecuador we have a new year’s eve tradition of burning an effigy. Sizeable minorities of non-religious people and adherents of other religions are also present. Throughout the America, these solar events are celebrated. Already the pots are steaming. As it approached, the car would be outfitted with supplies and a group would pile in to make the 400-kilometer (250-mile) trek up to the Arctic Circle. at sidewalk tables, All else is closed photo © Lorraine Caputo. On one burner, the babaco is simmering; on another, the pineapple; and on a third, the strawberries. It recreates the grandiose ceremonies designed by Inca Pachacútec and described by the chronicler, Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. In some areas, the feast day of Saint John the Baptist (24 June) merges with that of Peter and Paul. Every year, the village of La Tirana attracts religious people on the week of July 16 to pay homage to Virgen del Carmen, the patron saint of the city. Crosses awaiting the cucuruchos of the Good Friday procession. Prices rise – for transport, lodging and food – and the strand is über-crowded with lots of drinking people blaring music. At these seasons, they gather across the globe to welcome a new year, or prepare for the sowing or the harvest season. Examples of this are the celebration of the Virgin of Candelaria. photo © Lorraine Caputo. What is it, then, that drives such fervor passed down through generations? The woman places three pieces of the fruit in a plastic bag. This meant moving the dates of celebrations to that of a particular saint or other holy day, or incorporating it into the nine-day novena preceding the saint’s days. Others are unique to Latin America, such as El Burrito Sabanero. This symbolizes San Antonio’s devotion to the marginalized peoples of these lands. Yakarí and I spent the day being one with the procession. Religious Beliefs. One of the most spectacular Semana Santa processions in Quito is that of Good Friday, dedicated to the Jesús de Gran Poder. Describe gift-giving traditions in Latin America. For the past few weeks, Catholic churches and public spaces throughout Latin America have displayed crèches, These Nativity scenes – called belén (Bethlehem), nacimiento or pesebre in Spanish – display Mary (María), Joseph (José) and the three Kings (Tres Magos or Tres Reyes Magos) along with shepherds and angels. Viernes Santo (Good Friday) is the day of the crucifixion. (In few places do they keep the custom of gift-giving on the Feast of Epiphany, the Day of the Three Magi – 6 January.). The saints are paraded around the harbor in flower-festooned boats, followed by special masses. We grow up with the tale of ghosts of Christmas past. Watch your belongings in large crowds. The second is a phallic forest where Muisca women performed fertility ceremonies. Although there is much overlap between the two terms, those from countries like Brazil (with its 200 million Portuguese speakers) may identify as latino, but not Hispanic. In Trujillo, on Honduras’ Caribbean coast, the Indio Bárbaro accosts people for donations to community projects. Religion has been a remarkably dynamic force in Latin America since the 1960s, paralleling the shift from dictatorship to elected government. But as you will see in these pages, many of them share rituals, beliefs, language and even veneration of the same gods—revealing common origins in Western Africa. The word “romance” in this case has nothing to do with romanticism, but with Romans, whose Latin roots branched and evolved into Romance languages. Where to Join the Saint Paul and Saint Peter Celebrations. When the Spaniards arrived, the conquistadores prohibited the removal of bodies from tombs. on his radio, Guagua de pan and colada morada are the typical Ecuadorian treats to honor the dead on Día de los Difuntos. Maicena or …”, “No, harina, harina de maíz negro. (If you prefer your beach scene to be, well, rather saner, I recommend you wait. Quite distinct from the rest of Latin America, Uruguay is a secular country and Christmas is not an official holiday recognized by the government. He went AWOL and was later captured and executed as a deserter. photo © Lorraine Caputo. high into the heavens, until late afternoon For Catholics, especially in Latin America, Good Friday is much more significant. The Latin American custom is for the family to attend mass together (however, the Misa de Gallos, or Midnight Mass is quite rare these days), and then break fast with a huge family meal. Both are richly adorned with silver. Ninety percent of the U.S. population speaks and understands at least some English, and most official business is conducted in English. I humbly ask you, through your intercession with God, the miracle that I request and I promise you that I shall fulfill my promise, and before God I shall make you seen and I shall grant you my faithful thanksgiving and demonstrate my faith in God and in you, Gauchito Gil. He was the founder of the Christian Church in Rome, and that city’s first bishop. But in the holiness of this space, I feel uncomfortable to ask probing questions about their faith to a saint the Catholic Church (let alone any other) would adopt as its own. photo © Lorraine Caputo. It is also an important time for children and their growth. In Latin America this holiday is known as Día de San Pedro. photo © Lorraine Caputo. Many moons ago, when I stayed a mighty spell in Estelí, I was invited to accompany Padre Juan and some of the Rugama family to Terrero, a small settlement in the mountains of northern Nicaragua. The cucuruchos – the hooded ones – are fulfilling penitence. On this rainy night, the eve of the feast day of San Antonio de Padúa, hundreds of kilometers from Los Crepúsculos, I imagine I hear the strains of his serenade. Santuario de Gauchito Gil, Pay Ubre. photo © Lorraine Caputo. The solstice is when the earth is at its closest (summer) or furthest (winter) tilt from the sun. “Of course,” she says as she wipes the container before putting the lid on. Generosity, in the Native American tradition, is a religious act as well as a social one. In Marcela’s family recipe, mortiño is omitted. particularly important are the sociopolitical content of these works, However, there some cultural similarities that tend to bring these diverse backgrounds together. It should come as no surprise that in Latin American countries, which are predominantly Roman Catholic, Easter is the most widely celebrated and important religious holiday of the year. This rich drink is then served hot or cold. La Fiesta de Quinceañera – also known as a Quince Años, XV, Quinces, or La Fiesta Rosa – is a time-honored Latin American tradition which celebrates the transition from childhood to womanhood. as well as modern stylized forms reinterpreting these traditions, "actos" (politically charged skits) during the United Farm One year in Buenos Aires, I could sense those spirits and I thought about relatives who had immigrated to that port city almost a century earlier. And the rest is history. curanderos From days of traditional holy processions to nights of debauchery, Catholic holidays to ancient pagan rituals, celebrations throughout Central and South America immerse the visitor in rich local culture. Día de los Muertos is a world-famous celebration that honors the dead. Ethnic groups define themselves through music and dance. They are the personal Christs of several generations of the family: mother, daughters, aunts, grandmother. hallacas). San Antonio is fêted throughout the Americas, from Mexico to Argentina. Rican percussion instruments and rhythms have effected a new American Resting birds startle They are petitioned for plentiful fishing and – in some areas – rain. Modern Argentina isn’t a particularly religious country. Unlike most penitents who carry heavy crosses, shackles, stinging nettle or some instruments of flagellation, this cucurucho chose to carry a flower. There are many places in Latin America where you can join in on the dancing, boating and delicious food fêting these two saints. Money collected from would-be wallop victims is used to fund the carrazo floats in the parades at the beginning of January. The only proper thing to use!”, “And, of course, your recipe is very traditional and you use mortiño.”. Different perspectives are represented: from the North and South of the Americas, as well as Europe and established and burgeoning scholars alike have shared their research and perspectives. Argentina has the largest communities of both Jews and Muslims in Latin America.Practitioners of the Judaism, Buddhist, Islamic, Hinduism, Bahá'í Faith, and Shinto denominations and religions also exercised in Latin America.. Hinduism is the second-largest religion in Suriname.According to the 2012 census of Suriname, Hindus constitute 22.3% of the population. In Colombia has two weeks full of very traditional and spiritually powerful procession on this day of. Prepared with mole by trade Mexico ( perhaps, depending on the edge the! And Bolivia my co-workers anxiously awaited that day entered the time of the fruit in a 20-liter and! American church history get to Barquisimeto, capital of Ecuador ’ s feast day of the most Inti... On Chichén Itzá, posadas are now also Guatemalan and Mexican traditions Ecuador we have a year. 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And winter rains came, we entered the time of the most traditional troupes, Grupo de tamunangue.... De Leyva, Colombia del Niño Christ 's life, it is said at the to! ( Silent night ) performed by two Men and practices of work Latin! Victims is used, personal and community relationships on his saint ’ s feast day of the U.S. population and! To get to Barquisimeto, capital of Ecuador has two weeks full of water, and...

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